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Plant Genetic Resources and Crop Improvement

Agrifound White (G-41): Bulbs are compact, silvery white with creamy flesh bigger elongated cloves with 20-25 in number and diameter 3.5 to 4.5 cm. Recommended for Maharashtra, and Madhya Pradesh.

Yamuna Safed (G-1): Bulbs are compact, silvery white skin with creamy flesh, diameter 4.0-4.5 cm. Sickle shaped cloves with 25-30 in number. Recommend to cultivation in all over the country.

Yamuna Safed-2 (G-50): Bulbs are compact, attractive white creamy flesh and average diameter is 3.5-4.0 cm. Number of cloves 35-40. Recommended for cultivation in Northern India.

Yamuna Safed-3 (G-282): Bulbs are creamy white and bigger sized about 4.5-6 cm in diameter. Number of cloves/bulb is 15-16. Recommended for Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Haryana, Gujarat, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.

Yamuna Safed-4 (G-323): Bulbs are silvery white and average diameter is 3.5- 4.0 cm. Number of cloves 20-25/bulb. Recommended for North and central India.

Yamuna Safed-5 (G-189): Bulbs are creamy white and bigger sized  4.5-5 cm in diameter. Number of cloves/bulb is 22-30. Suitable for processing purpose and recommended for growing in Sikkim, Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland, Mizoram, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Andaman and Nicobar Island, Punjab, Tarai region of Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi.

Agrifound Parvati (G-313): Bulbs are bigger size 5.0-6.5 cm in diameter, creamy white colour with pinkish tinge, 10-16 cloves/bulb. Recommended for Himalayan hills of Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Jammu Kashmir and high altitude of North eastern states like Sikkim etc.

Agrifound Parvati-2 (G-408): Bulbs are bigger size 5.0-6.0 cm in diameter, creamy white colour, 12-14 cloves/bulb. Suitable for growing in Himalayan hills of Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Jammu Kashmir and high altitude of North eastern state like Sikkim etc.

Crop Production System Management

The planting of garlic cloves of 8-10 mm size at a spacing of 10-12.5 cm x 7.5. cm in the month of October is recommended for obtaining higher bulb yield, however, for quality bulb production planting at 15.0 cm x 10.0 cm spacing is recommended. The planting of garlic is generally recommended from 15th Oct. to 15th Nov. however, planting from 15th Oct. to 30th Oct. is recommended for Karnal conditions of Haryana and 25th Oct. to 5th Nov.  under Nashik condition of Maharashtra.

Besides Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potash (NPK) (100:50:50 Kg/ha) the use of Sulphur @ 30-50 Kg/ha and Zinc sulphate @ 20 Kg./ha are recommended for enhancement in yield and quality. The use of specialty fertilizers (water soluble fertilizers) as NPK -19:19:19 @ 1 % at 30,45 and 60 DAP followed by NPK -13:0:45 @ 1 % at 75, 90 and 105 DAP increase the yield and enhance  the storability substantially. The fertigation in 10 splits are recommended for higher bulb yield. For garlic grown on Avid system, the  integrated nutrient management is recommended with saving of 50 % chemical fertilizers (NPK @ 50:25:25 Kg./ha + Sulphur @ 25 Kg./ha + Zinc @ 10 Kg./ha + Azospirillum or Azotabactor @ 10 Kg./ha +   Phosphate solubilizing bacteria @ 10 Kg/ha) to 70 %  chemical fertilizers (NPK @ 30:15:15 Kg./ha + Suphur @ 15 Kg./ha + Zinc @ 6 Kg./ha + foliar spray of Polyfeed @ 1 % at 15, 30 and 45 DAP followed by Multi-K @ 1 % at 60, 75 and 90 DAP) without any significant reduction in yield with improvement in soil health and environmental soundness in comparison to standard check (NPK @ 100:50:50 Kg./ha + S @ 50 Kg./ha +Zn @ 20 Kg/ha).The farm  application of GA3 @ 25 ppm at 45& 60 DAP have been recommended  to enhance the yield of garlic and improve the quality under Nashik condition of Maharashtra and Karnal conditions of Haryana.

Use of Pendimethalin @ 3.5 l/ha + one handweeding or Oxyfluorfen @ 0.25 Kg a.i/ha + one handweeding are recommended for effective control of weeds in garlic.

The irrigation at 1.5 CPE (Cumulative Pan Evaporation) is recommended for higher yield of quality garlic bulbs. Drip irrigation is recommended in garlic grown on raised bed to get higher bulb yield.

Plant Health Management

Foliar diseases

Foliar spray of mancozeb (Dithane M-45) @ 0.25% or Ziram (Dithane Z-78) @ 0.3 % with sticker Triton @ 0.06% at fortnightly intervals after appearance of disease recommended to control the purple blotch (Alternaria porri) and stemphylium blight (Stemphylium vesicarium) of garlic.

15th October planting of garlic cloves in Nashik (Maharashtra) was found suitable for reducing the prevalence of diseases and thrips in garlic varieties us Yamuna safed, Yamuna safed-2 and Yamuna safed-3 and 15th September for Agrifound white during rabi season. 15th September planting of garlic clove in Karnal (Haryana) was found suitable for  reducing the diseases and insect pest in garlic varieties us Yamuna safed, Yamuna safed-2, Yamuna safed-3 and 15th October for Agrifound white during rabi season

Management of thrips

Sprays of deltamethrin 2.8% EC @ 0.095% at 15 days interval or fipronil 5% SC @ 0.1% at 10 days interval or profenofos 50% EC @ 0.1% or spinosad 45% SC @  0.1% is recommended for reducing thrips population and increasing yield.

Post Harvesting Technology

Harvesting of garlic at 75 – 100% neck fall stage, windrow curing till complete drying of tops and neck cutting leaving 2.5cm neck above bulb and storage in nylon-netted bags are recommended to reduce post harvest losses in garlic. The cloves treated with Potassium orthophosphate solution @1% for 15 minutes before planting are recommended to minimize the storage loss in garlic. The garlic variety Yamuna sated-3 planting on 5th Nov. is recommended  for level  losses at Nashik ( for 6 months) as well as Karnal (for 9 months).

Artificial curing of garlic bulb variety Agrifound Parvati grown in Kullu vally in curing chamber with full load at 350C and velocity of airflow at 3.2 m/s. for 14 hours is also recommended for adoption in view of lower storage losses during storage.

The garlic genotype G-189 is recommended for processing purpose in view of having desired dehydration qualities.